|Grow as a houseplant or under heated glass.
|10 to 15C+
|Indoor / Outdoor
|Grow indoors, or outdoors in summer in a sheltered spot
|5 to 10C
|Grow outdoors in summer, and in a heated glasshouse in winter.
|1 to 5C
|Grow outdoors or under glass without risk of frost.
|-5 to 1C
|Hardy in coastal/mild/sheltered areas. Will not tolerate hard/sudden frost. May require winter protection in situ. such as fleece or straw mulch.
|-10 to -5C
|May suffer at altitude, central/northerly locations, harsh winters, cold gardens and when grown in pots.
|-15 to -10C+
|Will survive most severe winters but may be at risk in central/northerly locations and in pots. Top growth may be destroyed but will usually re-grow.
|-20 to -15C
|Will survive severe winter, but may need protection when grown in pots.
|-20C & Colder
|Very Hardy / Hardy
|in the severest European climates.
Originating from Europe and Asia
Evergreen conifer, columnar when young but becoming domed as it matures with flaky orange bark on the upper trunk and twisted blue/green needles that turn an attractive yellow/green in winter. Mature specimens always have a knarled, windswept appearance that adds to their character, and they are perfect for applying Niwaki techniques (Japanese pruning) or using in bonsai. Very salt tolerant.
Grow in well-drained soil in sun.
Height and spread after 5 – 6 years 2.5m x 1.5m
Semi mature height and spread after 10 – 12 years if not pruned 5m x 3.5m
Potential mature height and spread after 25 – 30 years 20m x 7m
|Season of interest