|1||15C+||Indoor||Grow as a houseplant or under heated glass.|
|2||10 to 15C+||Indoor / Outdoor||Grow indoors, or outdoors in summer in a sheltered spot|
|3||5 to 10C||Tender||Grow outdoors in summer, and in a heated glasshouse in winter.|
|4||1 to 5C||Tender||Grow outdoors or under glass without risk of frost.|
|5||-5 to 1C||Half-Hardy||Hardy in coastal/mild/sheltered areas. Will not tolerate hard/sudden frost. May require winter protection in situ. such as fleece or straw mulch.|
|6||-10 to -5C||Hardy||May suffer at altitude, central/northerly locations, harsh winters, cold gardens and when grown in pots.|
|7||-15 to -10C+||Hardy||Will survive most severe winters but may be at risk in central/northerly locations and in pots. Top growth may be destroyed but will usually re-grow.|
|8||-20 to -15C||Hardy||Will survive severe winter, but may need protection when grown in pots.|
|9||-20C & Colder||Very Hardy / Hardy||in the severest European climates.|
Originating from Europe and Asia
Evergreen conifer, columnar when young but becoming domed as it matures with flaky orange bark on the upper trunk and twisted blue/green needles that turn an attractive yellow/green in winter. Mature specimens always have a knarled, windswept appearance that adds to their character, and they are perfect for applying Niwaki techniques (Japanese pruning) or using in bonsai. Very salt tolerant.
Grow in well-drained soil in sun.
Height and spread after 5 – 6 years 2.5m x 1.5m
Semi mature height and spread after 10 – 12 years if not pruned 5m x 3.5m
Potential mature height and spread after 25 – 30 years 20m x 7m